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Contare i polimini generalizzati

Non dimenticare che in informatica qualsiasi problema può avere risoluzioni diverse, quindi insegneremo il migliore e il più ottimale.

Soluzione:

Haskell

Ora che non solo i commenti documentano che Peter Taylor è stato il primo a fornire termini sufficienti per la ricerca su OEIS, posso fornire i miei risultati.

( 1 - 10) 2, 2, 4, 10, 28, 79, 235, 720, 2254, 7146,
(11 - 15) 22927, 74137, 241461, 790838, 2603210,
(16 - 18) 8604861, 28549166, 95027832,
(19 - 22) 317229779, 1061764660, 3562113987, 11976146355

Prima ho contato i polimini esagonali. Tranne che per alcune ottimizzazioni, quello che sto facendo qui è molto simile.

Gli elementi della piastrellatura sono rappresentati in questo modo:
Si può andare in linea quasi retta da sinistra a destra
(nella prima immagine), alternando quadrati e rettangoli.
rettangoli. Ci sono altre linee quasi parallele,
che si muovono in direzioni opposte. Insieme, mancano
alcuni triangoli.
Ci sono linee parallele simili, quasi rettilinee, dal
dal basso verso l'alto, che contengono i triangoli mancanti.
Ora ignorate le oscillazioni e usate un sistema di coordinate cartesiane, ma usate solo numeri dispari per le coordinate dei quadrati.
cartesiane, ma utilizzando solo numeri dispari per le coordinate dei quadrati.
In questo modo i triangoli ottengono naturalmente coppie di coordinate con una coordinata pari e una dispari.
e una dispari. Le coppie con entrambe le coordinate pari
non rappresentano elementi del tiling.

(Si potrebbero anche usare numeri pari per le coordinate dei quadrati.
dei quadrati. Credo di aver deciso così perché ho pensato
alla riflessione prima della rotazione).

Salvate il programma in un file con un nome come cgp.hs e compilate con ghc -O2 -o cgp cgp.hs. Il programma accetta un argomento numerico da riga di comando e calcola il numero di polimini di quella dimensione, oppure nessuno, nel qual caso calcola i valori fino a quando non viene interrotto.

{-# LANGUAGE BangPatterns #-}

import Data.List(sort)
import qualified Data.Set as S
import System.Environment(getArgs)

data Point = P !Int !Int deriving (Eq,Ord)

start :: Point
start = P 1 1

redsq :: Point -> Bool
redsq (P x y) = (x+y) `mod` 4 == 2

neighs :: Point -> [Point]
neighs (P x y) =
  case (even x, even y) of
    (False,False) -> [P x (y+1), P (x+1) y, P x (y-1), P (x-1) y]
    (True, False) -> (P x (c y (x+y+1))) : opt [P (x-1) y, P (x+1) y]
    (False,True ) -> (P (c x (x+y-1)) y) : opt [P x (y-1), P x (y+1)]
  where
    opt = filter ok
    ok p = p>start || not (redsq p)
    c z m = if m `mod` 4 == 0 then z+2 else z-2

count :: S.Set Point -> S.Set Point -> [Point] -> Int -> Int -> Int -> Int -> Int
count use _    _            0 c r y =
  if check (S.toAscList use) (y==r)
    then c+1
    else c
count _   _    []           _ c _ _ = c
count use seen (p:possible) n c r y =
  let !c' = count use seen possible n c r y
      new = filter (`S.notMember` seen) $ neighs p
      !r' = if redsq p then r+1 else r
      !y' = if redsq (mirror p) then y+1 else y
      !n' = n-1
  in if r'+n' < y' 
       then c'
       else count (S.insert p use) (foldr S.insert seen new) (new++possible)
                  n' c' r' y'

class Geom g where
  translate :: Int -> Int -> g -> g
  rot :: g -> g
  mirror :: g -> g

instance Geom Point where
  translate dx dy (P x y) = P (dx+x) (dy+y)
  rot (P x y) = P (2-y) x    -- rotate around (1,1)
  mirror (P x y) = P x (-y)

instance (Geom g, Ord g) => Geom [g] where
  translate x y = map $ translate x y
  rot = sort . map rot
  mirror = sort . map mirror

normalize :: [Point] -> [Point]
normalize pol = let (P x y) = head (filter redsq pol)
                in translate (1-x) (1-y) pol

check :: [Point] -> Bool -> Bool
check pol !cm = let rotated = take 4 $ iterate rot pol
                    mirrored = if cm then map mirror rotated else []
                    alts = map normalize (tail rotated ++ mirrored)
                in all (pol<=) alts

f :: Int -> Int
f 0 = 1; f 1 = 2; f 2 = 2
f n = count S.empty S.empty [start] n 0 0 0

output :: Int -> IO ()
output n = putStrLn $ show n ++ ": " ++ show (f n)

main = do args <- getArgs
          case args of
            []  -> mapM_ output [1..]
            [n] -> output (read n)

Provatelo online!

2, 2, 4, 10, 28, 79, 235, 720, 2254, 7146, 22927, 74137, 241461, 790838, 2603210, 8604861, 28549166, 95027832

Metterò un paletto nel terreno prima che Christian Sievers invii una risposta per n=18. Questo è il massimo che posso fare con il codice attuale e 16 GB di RAM. Ho già dovuto sacrificare un po' di velocità per ridurre l'uso della memoria e dovrò farlo ancora di più. Ho alcune idee...

Questo frammento è l'SVG del primo commento.


    
    

    
    
    

  

Il codice è C#. L'ho eseguito con .Net Core 2.2.6 sotto Linux.

#define SUPERLIGHT
using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Linq;

namespace Sandbox
{
    // https://codegolf.stackexchange.com/questions/187763/counting-generalized-polyominoes
    // Count polyominos on the snub square tiling.

    // We index the tiles using the following basic element, which tiles like a square:
    /*
        
        
        
              
              

              
              
              
            

            
        
    */
    // In terms of symmetries, we have rotation by 90 degrees and reflection, possibly with glide.
    // We obviously want a canonical representation.
    //   Reflection interchanges "anticlockwise" and "clockwise" squares, so we shall require at least as many anticlockwise as clockwise.
    //   Rotation anticlockwise by 90 maps NE -> NW -> SW -> SE -> NE. We rotate to get a standard necklace.
    //   Further ties must be broken lexicographically, after translating to give minimum X and Y of 0.
    class PPCG187763
    {

        internal static void Main()
        {
            SanityChecks();

            var polyominos = new HashSet();
            polyominos.Add(new TileSet(Enumerable.Repeat(new Tile { X = 0, Y = 0, Shape = TileShape.SE }, 1)));
            polyominos.Add(new TileSet(Enumerable.Repeat(new Tile { X = 0, Y = 0, Shape = TileShape.Anticlockwise }, 1)));
            Console.WriteLine($"1t{polyominos.Count}");
            for (int tileCount = 2; tileCount < 60; tileCount++)
            {
                var sw = new Stopwatch();
                sw.Start();
                var nextPolyominos = new HashSet();
                // TODO This can be greatly optimised by tracking discarded insertion points
                foreach (var polyomino in polyominos)
                {
                    foreach (var neighbour in polyomino.SelectMany(tile => tile.Neighbours).Distinct())
                    {
                        if (!polyomino.Contains(neighbour)) nextPolyominos.Add(new TileSet(polyomino.Concat(Enumerable.Repeat(neighbour, 1))));
                    }
                }
                polyominos = nextPolyominos;
                Console.WriteLine($"{tileCount}t{polyominos.Count}t{sw.ElapsedMilliseconds}ms");
            }
        }

        private static void SanityChecks()
        {
            var cluster = new HashSet();
            cluster.Add(new Tile { Shape = TileShape.Anticlockwise });
            for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++)
            {
                foreach (var tile in cluster.SelectMany(tile => tile.Neighbours).ToList()) cluster.Add(tile);
            }

            foreach (var tile in cluster)
            {
                foreach (var neighbour in tile.Neighbours)
                {
                    if (!neighbour.Neighbours.Contains(tile))
                    {
                        throw new Exception("Assertion failed: adjacency isn't symmetric");
                    }

                    if (!tile.Flip().Neighbours.Contains(neighbour.Flip()))
                    {
                        throw new Exception("Assertion failed: flip doesn't preserve adjacency");
                    }

                    if (!tile.Rot().Neighbours.Contains(neighbour.Rot()))
                    {
                        throw new Exception("Assertion failed: rot doesn't preserve adjacency");
                    }

                    if (!tile.Equals(tile.Rot().Rot().Rot().Rot()))
                    {
                        throw new Exception("Assertion failed: rot^4 should be identity");
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        struct Tile : IComparable
        {
            public TileShape Shape { get; set; }
            public sbyte X { get; set; }
            public sbyte Y { get; set; }

            public IEnumerable Neighbours
            {
                get
                {
                    switch (Shape)
                    {
                        case TileShape.Anticlockwise:
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.SE };
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.SW };
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = (sbyte)(Y - 1), Shape = TileShape.NW };
                            yield return new Tile { X = (sbyte)(X - 1), Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.NE };
                            break;

                        case TileShape.Clockwise:
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.SE };
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.NE };
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = (sbyte)(Y + 1), Shape = TileShape.SW };
                            yield return new Tile { X = (sbyte)(X + 1), Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.NW };
                            break;

                        case TileShape.NE:
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.SW };
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.Clockwise };
                            yield return new Tile { X = (sbyte)(X + 1), Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.Anticlockwise };
                            break;

                        case TileShape.NW:
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.SE };
                            yield return new Tile { X = (sbyte)(X - 1), Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.Clockwise };
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = (sbyte)(Y + 1), Shape = TileShape.Anticlockwise };
                            break;

                        case TileShape.SE:
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.NW };
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.Clockwise };
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.Anticlockwise };
                            break;

                        case TileShape.SW:
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.NE };
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = (sbyte)(Y - 1), Shape = TileShape.Clockwise };
                            yield return new Tile { X = X, Y = Y, Shape = TileShape.Anticlockwise };
                            break;

                        default:
                            throw new NotSupportedException();
                    }
                }
            }

            public Tile Flip()
            {
                // We'll flip vertically.
                switch (Shape)
                {
                    case TileShape.Anticlockwise:
                        return new Tile { Shape = TileShape.Clockwise, X = X, Y = (sbyte)-Y };
                    case TileShape.Clockwise:
                        return new Tile { Shape = TileShape.Anticlockwise, X = (sbyte)(X + 1), Y = (sbyte)-Y };
                    case TileShape.NE: // G
                        return new Tile { Shape = TileShape.SE, X = (sbyte)(X + 1), Y = (sbyte)-Y };
                    case TileShape.NW: // Cy
                        return new Tile { Shape = TileShape.SW, X = X, Y = (sbyte)-Y };
                    case TileShape.SE: // W
                        return new Tile { Shape = TileShape.NE, X = X, Y = (sbyte)-Y };
                    case TileShape.SW: // Y
                        return new Tile { Shape = TileShape.NW, X = (sbyte)(X + 1), Y = (sbyte)-Y };
                    default:
                        throw new NotSupportedException();
                }
            }

            public Tile Rot()
            {
                // Anti-clockwise rotation: (x, y) = (-y, x)
                // But there will be offsets to account for the positions within the cell
                switch (Shape)
                {
                    case TileShape.Anticlockwise:
                        return new Tile { Shape = TileShape.Anticlockwise, X = (sbyte)-Y, Y = X };
                    case TileShape.Clockwise:
                        return new Tile { Shape = TileShape.Clockwise, X = (sbyte)(-Y - 1), Y = X };
                    case TileShape.NE:
                        return new Tile { Shape = TileShape.NW, X = (sbyte)-Y, Y = X };
                    case TileShape.NW:
                        return new Tile { Shape = TileShape.SW, X = (sbyte)(-Y - 1), Y = X };
                    case TileShape.SE:
                        return new Tile { Shape = TileShape.NE, X = (sbyte)(-Y - 1), Y = X };
                    case TileShape.SW:
                        return new Tile { Shape = TileShape.SE, X = (sbyte)-Y, Y = X };
                    default:
                        throw new NotSupportedException();
                }
            }

            public override int GetHashCode() => (X << 17) + (Y << 3) + (int)Shape;

            public bool Equals(Tile tile) => X == tile.X && Y == tile.Y && Shape == tile.Shape;

            public override bool Equals(object obj) => obj is Tile tile && Equals(tile);

            public int CompareTo(Tile other)
            {
                if (X != other.X) return X.CompareTo(other.X);
                if (Y != other.Y) return Y.CompareTo(other.Y);
                return Shape.CompareTo(other.Shape);
            }

            public override string ToString() => $"({X},{Y},{Shape})";
        }

        enum TileShape : byte
        {
            Anticlockwise,
            Clockwise,
            NE,
            SW,
            NW,
            SE
        }

        class TileSet : IReadOnlyCollection
        {
            public TileSet(IEnumerable tiles)
            {
                // Canonicalise
                var ordered = _Canonicalise(new HashSet(tiles));
                int h = 1;
                foreach (var tile in ordered) h = h * 37 + tile.GetHashCode();
                _HashCode = h;

                #if SUPERLIGHT

                // Since we normalise to have minimum X and Y of 0, we can use unsigned coordinates.
                // And since we're looking at connected graphs of on the order of 20 items, 6 bits per coordinate is plenty.
                _Items = ordered.Select(tile => (short)((tile.X << 9) + (tile.Y << 3) + (int)tile.Shape)).ToArray();

                #else

                _Items = new HashSet(ordered);

                #endif
            }

            private IReadOnlyList _Canonicalise(ISet tiles)
            {
                int ac = tiles.Count(tile => tile.Shape == TileShape.Anticlockwise);
                int c = tiles.Count(tile => tile.Shape == TileShape.Clockwise);

                if (ac < c) return _CanonicaliseRot(tiles);
                if (ac > c) return _CanonicaliseRot(tiles.Select(tile => tile.Flip()));

                return _Min(_CanonicaliseRot(tiles), _CanonicaliseRot(tiles.Select(tile => tile.Flip())));
            }

            private IReadOnlyList _Min(IReadOnlyList tiles1, IReadOnlyList tiles2)
            {
                for (int i = 0; i < tiles1.Count; i++)
                {
                    int cmp = tiles1[i].CompareTo(tiles2[i]);
                    if (cmp < 0) return tiles1;
                    if (cmp > 0) return tiles2;
                }

                return tiles1;
            }

            private IReadOnlyList _CanonicaliseRot(IEnumerable tiles)
            {
                //   Rotation anticlockwise by 90 maps NE -> NW -> SW -> SE -> NE. We rotate to get one of these necklaces (in rank order, not exact values):
                //     Necklaces:
                //     SE NE NW SW
                //     0  0  0  0    ** Four positions to consider
                //     1  0  0  0
                //     1  0  1  0    ** Two positions to consider
                //     1  1  0  0
                //     1  1  1  0
                //     2  0  0  1
                //     2  0  1  0
                //     2  0  1  1
                //     2  1  0  0
                //     2  1  0  1
                //     2  1  1  0
                //     2  1  2  0
                //     2  2  0  1
                //     2  2  1  0
                //     3  0  1  2
                //     3  0  2  1
                //     3  1  0  2
                //     3  1  2  0
                //     3  2  0  1
                //     3  2  1  0

                int se = tiles.Count(tile => tile.Shape == TileShape.SE);
                int ne = tiles.Count(tile => tile.Shape == TileShape.NE);
                int nw = tiles.Count(tile => tile.Shape == TileShape.NW);
                int sw = tiles.Count(tile => tile.Shape == TileShape.SW);
                var sorted = new int[] { se, ne, nw, sw }.Distinct().OrderBy(x => x);
                var index = 1000 * sorted.IndexOf(se) + 100 * sorted.IndexOf(ne) + 10 * sorted.IndexOf(nw) + sorted.IndexOf(sw);
                switch (index)
                {
                    case 0:
                        // All four positions need to be considered
                        var best = _Translate(tiles);
                        best = _Min(best, _Translate(tiles.Select(tile => tile.Rot())));
                        best = _Min(best, _Translate(tiles.Select(tile => tile.Rot().Rot())));
                        best = _Min(best, _Translate(tiles.Select(tile => tile.Rot().Rot().Rot())));
                        return best;

                    case 101:
                        // Two options need to be considered;
                        return _Min(_Translate(tiles.Select(tile => tile.Rot())), _Translate(tiles.Select(tile => tile.Rot().Rot().Rot())));

                    case 1010:
                        // Two options need to be considered;
                        return _Min(_Translate(tiles), _Translate(tiles.Select(tile => tile.Rot().Rot())));

                    case 1000:
                    case 1100:
                    case 1110:
                    case 2001:
                    case 2010:
                    case 2011:
                    case 2100:
                    case 2101:
                    case 2110:
                    case 2120:
                    case 2201:
                    case 2210:
                    case 3012:
                    case 3021:
                    case 3102:
                    case 3120:
                    case 3201:
                    case 3210:
                        // Already in the canonical rotation.
                        return _Translate(tiles);

                    case    1:
                    case 1001:
                    case 1101:
                    case   12:
                    case  102:
                    case  112:
                    case 1002:
                    case 1012:
                    case 1102:
                    case 1202:
                    case 2012:
                    case 2102:
                    case  123:
                    case  213:
                    case 1023:
                    case 1203:
                    case 2013:
                    case 2103:
                        // Needs one rotation.
                        return _Translate(tiles.Select(tile => tile.Rot()));

                    case   10:
                    case   11:
                    case 1011:
                    case  120:
                    case 1020:
                    case 1120:
                    case   21:
                    case  121:
                    case 1021:
                    case 2021:
                    case  122:
                    case 1022:
                    case 1230:
                    case 2130:
                    case  231:
                    case 2031:
                    case  132:
                    case 1032:
                        // Needs two rotations.
                        return _Translate(tiles.Select(tile => tile.Rot().Rot()));

                    case  100:
                    case  110:
                    case  111:
                    case 1200:
                    case  201:
                    case 1201:
                    case  210:
                    case 1210:
                    case  211:
                    case  212:
                    case 1220:
                    case  221:
                    case 2301:
                    case 1302:
                    case 2310:
                    case  312:
                    case 1320:
                    case  321:
                        // Needs three rotations.
                        return _Translate(tiles.Select(tile => tile.Rot().Rot().Rot()));

                    default:
                        throw new NotSupportedException("Case analysis failed");
                }
            }

            private IReadOnlyList _Translate(IEnumerable tiles)
            {
                int minX = tiles.Min(tile => tile.X);
                int minY = tiles.Min(tile => tile.Y);
                return tiles.
                    Select(tile => new Tile { Shape = tile.Shape, X = (sbyte)(tile.X - minX), Y = (sbyte)(tile.Y - minY) }).
                    OrderBy(tile => tile).
                    ToList();
            }

            #if SUPERLIGHT

            private readonly short[] _Items;

            public int Count => _Items.Length;

            public IEnumerator GetEnumerator()
            {
                foreach (var encoded in _Items)
                {
                    yield return new Tile { X = (sbyte)((encoded >> 9) & 0x3f), Y = (sbyte)((encoded >> 3) & 0x3f), Shape = (TileShape)(encoded & 0x7) };
                }
            }

            #else

            private readonly ISet _Items;

            public int Count => _Items.Count;

            public IEnumerator GetEnumerator() => _Items.GetEnumerator();

            public bool Contains(Tile tile) => _Items.Contains(tile);

            #endif

            IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator() => GetEnumerator();

            private readonly int _HashCode;
            public override int GetHashCode() => _HashCode;

            public bool Equals(TileSet tileset) => tileset != null && tileset.Count == Count && tileset._HashCode == _HashCode && _Items.SequenceEqual(tileset._Items);

            public override bool Equals(object obj) => obj is TileSet tileset && Equals(tileset);
        }
    }

    static class Extensions
    {
        internal static int IndexOf(this IEnumerable elts, T elt)
            where T : IEquatable
        {
            int idx = 0;
            foreach (var item in elts)
            {
                if (item.Equals(elt)) return idx;
                idx++;
            }
            return -1;
        }
    }
}

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